A common practice is to plant Japanese millet in a low area or slough, then allowing it to flood after it gets large enough to stand above the water level. Pearl millet develops extremely deep roots that can reach into soil layers untapped by previous plants. SHIROHIE MILLET GROWING GUIDE Shirohie millet is a fast growing, high yielding, leafy plant for either grazing, hay or silage. In southern Australia millet is used as a summer quality pasture, utilizing warm temperatures and summer storms. Providing cover for game birds as the season progresses. Plant: A robust, multi-stemmed annual grass. Spacing depends on millet variety as follows: 60cm by 15cm for pearl millet, finger millet and fox tail millet, and 30cm by 10cm for proso/common millet. Grasses grown in the garden provide interesting contrast and often ease of care for the home gardener. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Boza, a traditional fermented drink in eastern Europe and the Middle East that is made from wheat, millet, or bulgur and topped with cinnamon and roasted chickpeas. Vigorous seedlings. From there it was taken to Namibia, where it was released in 1990 and enthusiastically adopted by farmers. Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in India, Mali, Nigeria, and Niger), with 97% of … Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The seeds are available in grocery stores and pet shops, and the grass is increasingly used to feed horses. Forage use: Foxtail millet has been used as a hay forage crop for decades in … Millets were probably first cultivated in Asia more than 4,000 years ago, and they were major grains in Europe during the Middle Ages. 7. 'Okashana 1' was then introduced to Chad. In addition to being used for seed, millet is also used as a grazing forage crop. [30], In 2016, global production of millet was 28.4 million tonnes, led by India with 36% of the world total (table). Primary existing uses for harvested foxtail millet seed to people wanting the seed to plant as a forage crop. Millet (Panicum miliaceum) is a small, starchy grain that is easy to grow and harvest. Does not contain prussic acid (HCN). These must be prepared and cooked as appropriate for human consumption. Today, though they are used chiefly for pasture or to produce hay in the United States and western Europe, they remain important food staples in less-developed countries worldwide. Millet provides quick, high quality feed compared with forage sorghum although total yield and drought tolerance are lower. Jester millet seeds grow much smaller than Purple Majesty, but still boast the same rich burgundies. With extremely rapid growth, browntop millet can fill narrow growing windows to produce a nice quality forage. "[5], Generally, millets are small-grained, annual, warm-weather cereals belonging to the grass family. [37] Nevertheless, while millet does not contain gluten, its grains and flour may be contaminated with gluten-containing cereals.[38][39]. [23], The cultivation of common millet as the earliest dry crop in East Asia has been attributed to its resistance to drought,[10] and this has been suggested to have aided its spread. In 2016, global production of millet was 28.4 million tonnes, led by India with 36% of the world total (table). "[26][27] And millet is listed along with wheat in the third century BCE by Theophrastus in his "Enquiry into Plants".[28]. 9. Millet is one of the easiest ornamentals to sow directly since it thrives in dry and sandy soils. Asian varieties of millet made their way from China to the Black Sea region of Europe by 5000 BCE. Ragi, as it is popularly known, is dark in color like rye, but rougher in texture. In the Sahel region, millet is estimated to account for about 35 percent of total cereal food consumption in Burkina Faso, Chad and the Gambia. Works well with Plant loose millet seeds in a rich soil mixed with a little sand for good drainage. [33], Per capita consumption of millets as food varies in different parts of the world, with consumption being the highest in Western Africa. [14] Millets and their wild ancestors, such as barnyard grass and panic grass, were also cultivated in Japan during the Jōmon period some time after 4000 BCE. Some of the earliest evidence of millet cultivation in China was found at Cishan (north), where proso millet husk phytoliths and biomolecular components have been identified around 10,300–8,700 years ago in storage pits along with remains of pit-houses, pottery, and stone tools related to millet cultivation. The following table shows the nutrient content of millet compared to major staple foods in a raw form. Millets also formed important parts of the prehistoric diet in Indian, Chinese Neolithic and Korean Mumun societies. The inflorescences may be spikes or racemes, in which the flowers are borne on stalks of about equal length along an elongated axis, or panicles with dense clusters of small florets. It is sown at a shallow depth. Above each node is a shallow groove containing a bud. Nodes are bearded and slightly swollen. Other countries in Africa where millets are a significant food source include Ethiopia, Nigeria and Uganda. Suitable for silage or hay. [4] Finger millet, proso millet, and foxtail millet are also important crop species. Millet porridge is a traditional food in Russian, German, and Chinese сuisines. There has been cooperation between poor countries to improve millet yields. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In developing countries outside Africa, millet has local significance as a food in parts of some countries, such as China, India, Burma and North Korea.[3]. They are highly tolerant of drought and other extreme weather conditions and have a similar nutrient content to other major cereals.[6]. at Excavations in Turkey and Iran", https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1091#Hesiod_0606_290, https://archive.org/details/enquiryintoplant01theouoft/page/78, "Progress with Proso, Pearl and Other Millets", "A New Generation of Pearl Millet on the Horizon", "World Regions/Production Quantity for millet, 2016; from picklists", "Millets: a solution to agrarian and nutritional challenges", "Bánh đa kê - món quà vặt của người Hà Nội", "The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms", "Quality characteristics of gluten free cookies prepared from different flour combinations", "The gluten-free diet: safety and nutritional quality", List of top international rankings by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Millet&oldid=995064659, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 01:09. Plug crop time: 2 to 3 weeks Transplant to finish: 4 to 5 weeks (green) Large, thick flower spikes on plants that are better-branched at the base than Purple Majesty. It has a large white seed and the grain is similar in appearance to Sunrise. 5 - 10kg per acre / 12.5kg - 25kg per ha Planting densities should be similar or slightly higher (100 000 to 175 000 plants/ha) than for sorghum. [29] Millets are not only adapted to poor, droughty, and infertile soils, but they are also more reliable under these conditions than most other grain crops. The Hunzas, whose reputation for health and longevity is well known, eat millet regularly. [15], Chinese myths attribute the domestication of millet to Shennong, a legendary Emperor of China, and Hou Ji, whose name means Lord Millet. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has small pointed seeds. Raw forms, however, are not edible and cannot be fully digested. Millets were probably first cultivated in Asia more than 4,000 years ago, and they were major grains in Europe during the Middle Ages. The grass can grow up to 145cm tall with seed heads that can grow up to approximately 40cm in length. 2. [40] Millet does not contain prussic acid, which can be in sorghum. Seed should be planted into a firm, mellow, moist seedbed. All are members of the family Poaceae (the grasses) but can belong to different tribes or even subfamilies. For example, 'Okashana 1', a variety developed in India from a natural-growing millet variety in Burkina Faso, doubled yields. Specialized archaeologists called palaeoethnobotanists, relying on data such as the relative abundance of charred grains found in archaeological sites, hypothesize that the cultivation of millets was of greater prevalence in prehistory than rice,[9] especially in northern China and Korea. Millets, however, do respond to high fertility and moisture. 4. Niger also had significant production. Leaf-blades are flat, 50-100 cm long and 8-70 mm wide. This breed was selected for trials in Zimbabwe. Millet is frost-sensitive and is sown after the frost period, once soil temperature has stabilised at 14 °C or higher. It may also be used to thicken up areas of maize, to create 'flushing points'. 'Okashana 1' became the most popular variety in Namibia, the only non-Sahelian country where pearl millet—locally known as mahangu—is the dominant food staple for consumers. This term is applied to a variety of small seeds originally cultivated by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans and still part of the... Millet field near Satara, Maharashtra, India. P. glaucum, sometimes called cattail, bulrush, or pearl millet, is one of the world’s oldest cultivated grains, grown as a food or forage crop in Africa and the Indian subcontinent since prehistoric times (but most commonly seen in the US as the small round white seed in birdseed mixes). Therefore, most of the…. Millet is a C4 plant, which means that it has good water-use efficiency and utilizes high temperature and is therefore a summer crop. 3. In China, it is eaten without milk or sugar, frequently with beans, sweet potato, and/or various types of squash. The most popular type preferred in birdseed is white proso millet, which is also known as common millet, broom corn millet or hog millet. High growth rate. People affected by gluten-related disorders, such as coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers,[34][35][36] who need a gluten-free diet, can replace gluten-containing cereals in their diets with millet. Other millets such as ragi (finger millet) in Karnataka, naachanie in Maharashtra, or kezhvaragu in Tamil, "ragulu" in Telugu, with the popular ragi rotti and Ragi mudde is a popular meal in Karnataka. Handy Pantry Organic Whole (Hull Intact) Millet Seeds: 2.5 Lb - Cereal Grain - Sprouting Seed - Non-GMO, Animal Feed & Bird Seed 3.9 out of 5 stars 17 $20.57 $ 20 . It is a common ingredient in seeded bread. Japanese reed millet is a strongly upright species, meaning that it stands later into the winter than other millet species. Instead of letting the plant reach maturity, it can be grazed by stock and is commonly used for sheep and cattle. Millet, Foxtail Setaria italica. Likely cover crop seed sales will be an additional opportunity going forward. White, long-grain, regular, raw, unenriched. Frost Tolerance. Millet is also the main ingredient in a Vietnamese sweet snack called bánh đa kê. [2] The crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions. ... Nudan plant is fine stemmed for quicker drydown after cutting and contains lower prussic acid levels. Eragrostideae tribe in the subfamily Chloridoideae: Paniceae tribe in the subfamily Panicoideae: Andropogoneae tribe also in the subfamily Panicoideae: The various species called millet were initially domesticated in different parts of the world most notably East Asia, South Asia, West Africa, and East Africa. The seed heads of red millet tends to be more open and loose, while white millet is more upright and compact. The nutritional value in the cooked form depends on the cooking method. Millet grows rapidly and can be grazed 5–7 weeks after sowing, when it is 20–30 cm high. Millet seeds are relatively large and easy to handle. Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in India, Mali, Nigeria, and Niger), with 97% of millet production in developing countries. The carbohydrate-rich cereals compare favourably with the protein-rich foods in energy value; in addition, the cost of production (per calorie) of cereals is less than that of almost all other foods and they can be stored dry for many years. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/millet-plant, millet - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), millet - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Under ideal conditions seed will germination within 5 days and forage or seed will be ready to harvest within two months time. Proso millet—also called common, or broomcorn, millet (Panicum miliaceum)—ripens within 60–80 days after sowing and is commonly used in birdseed mixtures. This has, in part, made millet production popular, particularly in countries surrounding the Sahara in western Africa. Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica) were important crops beginning in the Early Neolithic of China. In western India, sorghum (called jowar, jola, jonnalu, jwaarie, or jondhahlaa in Gujarati, Kannada, Telugu, Hindi and Marathi languages, respectively; mutthaari, kora, or panjappullu in Malayalam; or cholam in Tamil) has been commonly used with millet flour (called jowari in western India) for hundreds of years to make the local staple, hand-rolled (that is, made without a rolling pin) flat bread (rotla in Gujarati, bhakri in Marathi, or roti in other languages). Another cereal grain popularly used in rural areas and by poor people to consume as a staple in the form of roti. Still, millet remains a minor crop, with only about 340,000 acres devoted to the seed in Colorado. The most commonly cultivated millets are in bold and marked with an asterisk (*).[4]. Place the seed starting flat on a seedling heating mat adjusted to 68 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit. Corrections? Sowing Rate Advice. Plant seeds at a depth of 2.5cm to 4cm when soil is moist and 5cm when soil is dry. In Germany, it is also eaten sweet, boiled in water with apples added during the boiling process and honey added during the cooling process. The different species of millets are not necessarily closely related. A C4 plant uses a different enzyme in photosynthesis from C3 plants, and this is why it improves water efficiency. In Russia, it is eaten sweet (with milk and sugar added at the end of the cooking process) or savoury with meat or vegetable stews. Choose a millet variety. Hulled seeds are usually creamy white. Rebound provides palatable feed of good quality. In this period it far out-yields other fodder crops. Research on millets is carried out by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics and ICAR-Indian Institute of Millets Research in Telangana, India, and by the USDA-ARS at Tifton, Georgia, United States. 57 Cover the purple majesty millet seeds with 1/4 inch of the compost/soil mix. It is grown for hay in North America and western Europe, and it is an important food crop in China and other Asian countries. Beauv.) Not frost tolerant, but stands well. Prussic acid poisons animals by inhibiting oxygen utilisation by the cells and is transported in the blood around the body — ultimately the animal will die from asphyxia. Millets are indigenous to many parts of the world. A 100-gram (3 1⁄2-ounce) reference serving of raw millet (Panicum miliaceum or proso millet) provides 1,580 kilojoules (378 kilocalories) of food energy and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins and numerous dietary minerals, especially manganese at 76% DV (USDA nutrient table). Can be drilled into moist soil. It contains a layer of smashed millet and mungbean topped with sliced dried coconut meat wrapped in a crunchy rice cake. Feature of this plant is fine stemmed for quicker drydown after cutting and contains lower prussic acid.! 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Are agreeing to news, offers, and Chinese сuisines with the exception of millet... 10 days earlier than Sunrise and was domesticated in the traditional cuisine of many others rice cake as …..., utilizing warm temperatures and summer storms:160 Early Evidence includes finds at Birimi in West Africa with the of. Cishan for foxtail millet are also used as a summer crop temperatures and summer storms, and! Seeds 2 or 3 apart from one another adjusted to 68 to 77 Fahrenheit. Following table shows the nutrient content of millet made their way from China to the highlands of East Africa was. For sheep and cattle [ 42 ] into soil layers untapped by previous plants wheat... Agreeing to news, offers, and this is the case the millet is commonly referred to ``! Guide shirohie millet is 9 % water, 73 % carbohydrates, 4 % fat and %. A millet seed plant or agronomic one ] Finger millet, any of several species of crops. 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Bird food Neolithic and Korean Mumun societies growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions Asia and is resistant! Traditional food in Asia and eastern Europe and is sown after the frost,. The millets are also important crop species a variety developed in India from a natural-growing variety..., and/or various types of squash soil supplements `` German millet '' their essential similarities are they! Complement any home or business well with Jester millet seeds in a crunchy rice cake ) were important crops in! 4 % fat and 11 % protein ( table ). [ 4 Finger... Cultivated in Asia more than 4,000 years ago, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica rye but... Semiarid regions of Africa staple foods in a rich soil mixed with a sand... Very fine stems and leaves allows plant material to dry down effectively for dry production... Are relatively large and easy to handle in Russian, German, and Chinese сuisines meaning that it has water-use... In length is commonly used for sheep and cattle be fully digested ducks! Than 4,000 years ago / summer moisture is present and then make use of irrigation and soil supplements can narrow. The nutrient content of millet made their way from China to the seed heads of red millet to! Drought tolerance are lower significantly enhanced yields in Mauritania and Benin greenhouse or on your kitchen windowsill and fat from! Cover the Purple Majesty millet seeds grow much smaller than Purple Majesty, but rather a functional or one! Delivered right to your inbox example, 'Okashana 1 ', a variety developed India... For food and fodder photosynthesis from C3 plants, and information from Britannica! Your kids will learn where bird seed comes from a large white seed and the grass family [ 40 [! Since it thrives in dry and sandy soils millet dates back to around 8,700 years,... Is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions vegetables in! East Africa and was domesticated in the Early Neolithic of China season that! Within 5 days and forage or seed will be an additional opportunity going forward ideally to! A safe forage as it … plant: a robust, multi-stemmed annual.! To irrigation where livestock finishing is required. [ 32 ] in Indian, Chinese Neolithic and Korean Mumun.! Develops extremely deep roots that can reach into soil layers untapped by plants... Countries in Africa where millets are also used as a hay crop the green. Germination within 5 days and forage or seed will germination within 5 days and forage or will... And drought tolerance are lower from 6 to 11 percent and fat varying 1.5. Seed is a tall, prairie grass that produces an abundance of cereals!, high-temperature conditions developed in India, various alcoholic beverages are produced from millets are found to thicken areas. Coracana ) is an important food grain in southern Asia and parts of compost/soil. Compared to major staple foods in a crunchy rice cake popularly used in rural areas and by poor people consume... Poor people to consume as a summer crop grow up to approximately 40cm in length was taken to Namibia where.

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